Scientific and Research Evidence

Slipped disk

Weber H. Lumbar disk herniation: a controlled, prospective study with ten years of observation.  Spine 1983;8:131-40

Atlas, S. J., Keller, R. B., Wu, Y. A., Deyo, R. A., & Singer, D. E. (2005). Long-term outcomes of surgical and nonsurgical management of sciatica secondary to a lumbar disc herniation: 10 year results from the maine lumbar spine study. Spine, 30(8), 927–935.

Buttermann, G. R. (2004). Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation: Epidural Steroid Injection Compared with DiscectomyA Prospective, Randomized Study. The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery (American), 86(4), 670–679.

Konstantinou, K., & Dunn, K. M. (2008). Sciatica. Spine, 33(22), 2464–2472. doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e318183a4a2

WEBER, H. (1983). Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Controlled, Prospective Study with Ten Years of Observation. Spine, 8(2), 1–10.

Weinstein, J. N., Tosteson, T. D., Lurie, J. D., Tosteson, A. N. A., Hanscom, B., Skinner, J. S., et al. (2006). Surgical vs Nonoperative Treatment for Lumbar Disk Herniation: The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT): A Randomized Trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(20), 2441–2450. doi:10.1001/jama.296.20.2441



Weinstein JN, Lurie D, Tosteson TD, et al. Surgical compared with nonoperative treatment for lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis. Four-year results in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT).  JBJS (Am) 2009;91:1295-1304.


Cervical Spinal Stenosis

Emery SE Bohlman HH, Bolesta MJ, et al. Anterior cervical decompression and arthrodesis for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.  Two to seventeen year follow-up.  JBJS (Am) 1998; 80: 941-951.

Matsuda Y, Shabita T, Oki S, Kawatani Y et al.  Outcomes of surgical treatment for cervical myelopathy in patients more than 75 years of age.  Spine 1999; 24: 529-534.

Murrey D, Janssen M, Delamarter R, et al. Results of the prospective, randomized, controlled multicenter Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemption study of the ProDisc-C total disc replacement versus anterior discectomy and fusion for the treatment of 1-level symptomatic cervical disc disease.  The Spine J 2009 9:275–286


Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

Weinstein JN, Tosteson TD, Lurie JD, et al.  Surgical versus nonsurgical therapy for lumbar spinal stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:794-810.

Weinstein JN, Tosteson TD, Lurie JD, et al.  Surgical Versus Nonoperative Treatment for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Four-Year Results of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial. Spine 35 (14): 1329 –1338

Sanderson P, Wood P.  Surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis in old people.  JBJS (Br) 1993; 75-B:393-7








Manipulative Therapy



Cervical Disk Replacement



Spinal Fusion

Zdeblick, T.A., 1993. A Prospective, Randomized Study of Lumbar Fusion: Priliminary Results. Spine, 18(8), p.983.

Gibson JNA, Grant IC, Waddell G. The Cochrane review of surgery for lumbar disc prolapse and degenerative lumbar spondylosis. Spine 1999;24(17):1820–32

Fritzell, P. et al., 2001. 2001 Volvo Award Winner in Clinical Studies: Lumbar Fusion Versus Nonsurgical Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial From the Swedish Lumbar Spine Study Group. Spine, 26(23), p.2521.

Gibson JNA, Hallett A. Spinal fusion in patients with single level degenerate disc disease and neural compression – A prospective randomised study. Proceedings of the International Society for Study of the Lumbar Spine. 2003.

Fairbank J, Frost H, Wilson-MacDonald J, Yu L, Barker K, Collins R and the Spine Stabilisation Group. Randomised controlled trial to compare surgical stabilisation of the lumbar spine with an intensive rehabilitation programme for patients with chronic low back pain: the MRC spine stabilisation trial. BMJ 2005;330:1233–43.

Peter Fritzell, Olle Hägg, Per Wessberg, et al. 2001 Volvo Award Winner in Clinical Studies: Lumbar Fusion Versus Nonsurgical Treatment for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial From the Swedish Lumbar Spine Study. Spine, 26(23), 2521.


Fracture treatment



MAST (modic antibiotic spinal treatment)





Conditions affecting
the spine